Richard F West, Professor Emeritus

Department of Graduate Psychology

James Madison University

800 South Main St.  MSC 7401

Harrisonburg, VA 22807



Email: westrf@jmu.edu

Richard F West Homepage

 
 

Articles & Chapters:

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2017).  The assessment of executive functions in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, In M. J. Hoskyn, G. Iarocci, & A. R. Young (Eds.), Executive functions in children’s everyday lives (pp. 157-174). NY: Oxford University Press.


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2017).  Toward a Rationality Quotient (RQ): The Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking (CART).  In N. Galbraith, D. Over & E. Lucas (Eds.), The practical mind: The use of thinking in everyday life.  Hove, England: Psychology Press.


Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2016).  Real-world correlates of performance on heuristics and biases tasks in a community sample. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.  Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com)   doi:  10.1002/bdm.1973


West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2015). A model for the assessment of rational thought and its potential operationalization (pp. 344-353). In R. Wegerif, L. Li, & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of research on teaching thinking. New York: Routledge.


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2014). The assessment of rational thinking: IQ ≠ RQ. Teaching of Psychology, 4 (3), 265-271. doi: 10.1177/0098628314537988


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2014). Rationality, intelligence, and the defining features of Type 1 and Type 2 processing. In J. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual processes in social psychology. New York: Guildford Publications Inc.


Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: Development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions. Developmental Psychology.  50 (4), 1037-1048. doi: 10.1037/a0034910


Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (14). Assessing miserly information processing: An expansion of the Cognitive Reflection Test. Thinking & Reasoning, 20 (2), 147-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546783.2013.844729


Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Rationality, intelligence, and the defining features of Type I and Type 2 processing. In J. W. Sherman, B. Gawronski, and Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-Process Theories of the Social Mind, (pp. 80-91). NY: Guilford Press.


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2014). What intelligence tests miss. The Psychologist, 27 (2), 80-83.


Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Assessing the development of rationality. In H. Markovits (Ed.), The developmental psychology of reasoning and decision-making (pp. 7-35). NY: Psychological Press.


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2013). Myside bias, rational thinking, and intelligence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22 (4), 259-264.


Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Practitioner review: Do performance-based measures and ratings of executive function assess the same construct? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54 (2), 131-143.


West, R. F., Meserve, R. J., & Stanovich, K. E. (2012). Cognitive sophistication does not attenuate the bias blind spot, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103 (3), 506-519. View pdf


Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2012). Education for rational thought, In J. R. Kirby and M. J.  Lawson (Eds.), Enhancing the quality of learning: Dispositions, instruction, and learning processes (pp. 51-92), NY: Cambridge University Press.


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2012). Judgment and decision making in adolescence: Separating intelligence from rationality. In V. F. Reyna, S. Chapman, M. Dougherty, & J. Confrey, Eds., The adolescent brain: Learning, reasoning, and decision making (pp. 337-378).  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.  View pdf [book available from: Amazon.com]


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). The complexity of developmental predictions from dual process models, Developmental Review, 31, 103-118. View pdf


Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (i2011). The Cognitive Reflection Test as a predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks.  Memory & Cognition, 39, 1275-1289. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). Intelligence and rationality. In R. Sternberg and S. B. Kaufman (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of intelligence (3rd Edition) (pp. 784-826). Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011).  Individual differences as essential components of heuristics and biases research. In K. Manktelow, D. Over, & S. Elqayam (Eds.), The science of reason (pp. 355-396).  New York: Psychology Press. View pdf  [book available from: Amazon.com]


Stanovich, K. E., with West, R. F. (2011). A taxonomy of rational thinking problems. In K. E. Stanovich, Rationality and the reflective mind, NY: Oxford University Press. Amazon.com


Stanovich, K. E., with West, R. F. (2011). Intelligence as a predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks. In K. E. Stanovich, Rationality and the reflective mind, NY: Oxford University Press. Amazon.com


Stanovich, K. E., with West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2011). The assessment of rational thought. In K. E. Stanovich, Rationality and the reflective mind, NY: Oxford University Press. Amazon.com


Toplak, M. E., Sorge, G. B., Benoit, A., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2010). Decision-making and cognitive abilities: A review of associations between Iowa Gambling Task performance, executive functions, and intelligence, Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 562-581. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., Toplak, M. E., & West, R. F. (2010). Contaminated mindware: Thinking biases of the cognitive miser, Rotman Magazine, Winter, 16-21. View pdf


West, R. F., Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2008). Heuristics and biases as measures of critical thinking: Associations with cognitive ability and thinking dispositions, Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 930-941. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2008). On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 672-695. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., Toplak, M. E., & West, R. F. (2008). The development of rational thought: A taxonomy of heuristics and biases. Advances in child development and behavior, 36, 251-285. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2008). On the failure of cognitive ability to predict myside and one-sided thinking biases. Thinking & Reasoning, 14, 129-167. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2007). Natural myside bias is independent of cognitive ability. Thinking & Reasoning, 13 (3), 225-247. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., Sá, W. C., & West, R. F. (2004). Individual differences in thinking, reasoning, and decision making. In J. P. Leighton & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The nature of reasoning. New York: NY: Cambridge University Press. View pdf [book available from: Amazon. com]


Stanovich, K. E., Grunewald, M., & West, R. F. (2003). Cost-benefit reasoning in students with multiple secondary school suspensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1061-1072. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2003). Evolutionary versus instrumental goals: How evolutionary psychology misconceives human rationality. In D. E. Over (Ed.), Evolution and the psychology of thinking: The debate, NY: Psychology Press, pp. 171-230. View pdf [book available from: Psychology Press]


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2003). The rationality debate as a progressive research program. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26 (4), 531-534. View pdf


West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2003). Is probability matching smart? Associations between probabilistic choices and cognitive ability. Memory & Cognition, 31, 243-251. View pdf


Kokis, J, Macpherson, R., Toplak, M., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). Heuristic and analytic processing: Age trends and associations with cognitive ability and cognitive styles. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83, 26-52. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2002). Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate? In T. Gilovich, D. W. Griffin, D., Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment. New York: Cambridge University. pp. 421-440. View pdf [book available from: Amazon.com]


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23 (5), 645-665. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Advancing the rationality debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23 (5), 701-726. View pdf


Sá, W. C., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (1999). The domain specificity and generality of belief bias: Searching for a generalizable critical thinking skill. Journal of Educational Psychology , 91, 497-510. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1999). Discrepancies between normative and descriptive models of decision making and the understanding/acceptance principle. Cognitive Psychology, 38, 349-385. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., with West, R. F. (1999). Performance errors and computational limitations. In K. E. Stanovich, Who is rational? Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. pp. 32-52. (book available from: Amazon.com, www.bn.com, or Erlbaum.


Stanovich, K. E., with West, R. F., and Walter Sá (1999). Thinking dispositions and decontextualized reasoning. In K. E. Stanovich, Who is rational? Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. pp. 153-189. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. (book available from: Amazon.com, www.bn.com, or Erlbaum.


Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1999). Individual differences in reasoning and the heuristics and biases debate. In P. L. Ackerman, P. C. Kyllonen, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Learning and individual differences: Process, trait, and content determinants (pp. 389-407). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. View pdf


Siddiqui, S., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (1998). The influence of print exposure on syllogistic reasoning and knowledge of mental state verbs. Scientific Study of Reading, 2 (1), 81-96. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., Cunningham, A. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Literacy experiences and the shaping of cognition. In S. Paris & H. Wellman (Eds.), Global prospects for education: Development, culture, and schooling (pp. 253-288). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Cognitive ability and variation in selection task performance. Thinking & Reasoning, 4 (3), 193-230. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Individual differences in framing and conjunction effects. Thinking & Reasoning, 4 (4), 289-317. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Individual differences in rational thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127 (2), 161-188. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Who uses base rates and P(D/~H)? An analysis of individual differences. Memory & Cognition, 26 (1), 161-179. View pdf


West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (1997). The Domain Specificity and Generality of Overconfidence: Individual Differences in Performance Estimation Bias. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4 (3), 387-392. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1997). Reasoning independently of prior belief and individual differences in actively open-minded thinking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 342-357. View pdf


Echols, L. D., West, R. W., Stanovich, K. E., & Zehr, K. S. (1996). Using children's literacy activities to predict growth in verbal cognitive skills: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Educational Psychology. 88, 296-304. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., Cunningham, A. E., Cipielewski, J., & Siddiqui, S. (1996). The role of inadequate print exposure as a determinant of reading comprehension problems. In C. Cornoldi & J. Oakhill (Eds.), Reading comprehension disabilities: Processes and intervention. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. pp. 15-32. View pdf


West, R. F., Stanovich, K. E., & Cunningham, A. E., (1995). Compensatory processes in reading. In R. A. Dixon, & L. Backman (Eds.), Compensating for Psychological Deficits and Declines: Managing Losses and Promoting Gain. Hillsdale, N. J. : Erlbaum. View pfd


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Harrison, M. R. (1995). Knowledge Growth and Maintenance Across the Life Span: The Role of Print Exposure. Developmental Psychology. 31, 811-826. View pdf


Cunningham, A. E., Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1994). Literacy environment and the development of children's cognitive skills. In E. M. H. Assink (Ed.), Literacy acquisition and social context. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1994). Reply to Taylor. Reading Research Quarterly. 29, 290-291. View pdf


West, R. F., Stanovich, K. E., & Mitchell, H. R. (1993). Reading in the real world and its correlates. Reading Research Quarterly. 28, 34-50. View pdf


West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (1991). The incidental acquisition of knowledge from reading. Psychological Science. 5, 325–330. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Cunningham, A. E. (1991). Beyond phonological processes: Print exposure and orthographic processing. In S. Brady & D. Shankweiler (Eds.), Phonological processes in literacy. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1989). Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 402–433. View pdf


West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E.  (1988). How much of sentence priming is word priming? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 26, 1–4. View pdf


West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E.  (1988).The neutral condition in sentence context experiments: Empirical studies. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 26, 87–90. View pdf


West, R. F. (1987). The use of microcomputers in cognitive psychology courses. Network, 5, 8–9.


West, R. F. & Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Robust effects of syntactic structure on visual word processing. Memory & Cognition, 14, 104-112. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., Nathan, R. G., West, R. F., & Vala-Rossi, M. (1985). Children's word recognition in context: Spreading activation, expectancy, and modularity. Child Development, 56, 1418–1428. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1983). The generalizability of context effects on word recognition: A reconsideration of the roles of parafoveal priming and sentence context. Memory & Cognition, 11, 49-58. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1983). On priming by a sentence context: Implications for models of reading and lexical processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112, 1-36. View pdf


West, R. F. (1983). Data editing BASIC programs for creating, modifying, and combining Apple II disk files. Behavioral Research Methods and Instrumentation, 15, 387-388. View pdf


West, R. F., Stanovich, K. E., Feeman, D. J., & Cunningham, A. E. (1983). The effect of sentence context on word recognition in second- and sixth-grade children. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 6-15. View pdf


West, R. F. & Stanovich, K. E. (1982). The source of inhibition in experiments on the effects of sentence context on word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 8, 385–399. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., Cunningham, A. E., & West, R. F. (1981). A longitudinal study of the development of automatic recognition skills in first graders. Journal of Reading Behavior, 13, 57-74. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1981). The effects of sentence context on ongoing word recognition: Tests of a two-process theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 658-672. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Feeman, D. J. (1981). A longitudinal study of sentence context effects in second-grade children: Tests of an interactive-compensatory model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 32, 185-199. View pdf


Wilkinson, A. C., livepage.apple.comGuminski, M., Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1981). Optional interaction of visual recognition and memory in oral reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 7, 111-119. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., Purcell, D. G., & West, R. F. (1979). The development of word recognition mechanisms: Interference and unitization. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 13, 71-74. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1979). The effects of orthographic structure on the word search performance of good and poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28, 258-267. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1979). Mechanisms of sentence context effects in reading: Automatic activation and conscious attention. Memory & Cognition, 7, 77-85. View pdf


West, R. F. & Stanovich, K. E. (1979). The development of automatic word recognition. Journal of Reading Behavior, 11, 211–220. View pdf


Cohen, K. M., West, R. F., & Marsh, G. (Eds.) (1978). Models of efficient reading. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association. amazon.com


Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1978). A developmental study of the conceptual category effect in visual search. Child Development, 49, 1223–1226. View pdf


Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Pollack, D. (1978). The effects of orthographic structure on word recognition in a visual search task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 26, 136-146. View pdf


West, R. F. (1978). Efficient processing activities in reading. In K. M. Cohen, R. F. West, & G. Marsh (Eds.), Models of efficient reading. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association, 28-61. View pdf


West, R. F. & Stanovich, K. E. (1978). Automatic contextual facilitation in readers of three pages. Child Development, 49, 717-727. View pdf


Miller, P. H. & West, R. F. (1976). Perceptual supports for one-to-one correspondence in the conservation of number. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 21, 417-424. View pdf


Hagen, J. W. & West, R. F. (1970). The effects of a pay-off matrix on selective attention. Human Development, 13, 43-52. View pdf


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Example of Bayes XYZ Problems View or pdf

 
 Also see:  Stanovich Websitehttp://www.keithstanovich.com/Site/Home.htmlhttp://www.keithstanovich.com/Site/Home.htmlshapeimage_1_link_0

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2016). The rationality quotient (RQ):  Toward a test of rational thinking. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.  Available:  MIT Press  or   Amazon.com 


Book: